The Global Observing SATellite for Greenhouse gases and Water cycle (GOSAT-GW※1) is an Earth observation satellite that is responsible for the greenhouse gases observation missions (led by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment and the National Institute for Environmental Studies) and the water cycle variation observation missions (led by JAXA). In order to continue and expand missions on the water cycle variation observation by SHIZUKU (GCOM-W※2, launched in 2012) and on the greenhouse gases observation by IBUKI (GOSAT※3, 2009) and IBUKI-2 (GOSAT-2※3, 2018), GOSAT-GW will carry two successor sensors, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 3 (AMSR3) developed by JAXA, and the Total Anthropogenic and Natural emissions mapping SpectrOmeter-3 (TANSO-3) developed by JAXA under contract with the Ministry of the Environment.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation is selected as the primary manufacturer of the satellite and its onboard sensors.
※1 The Global Observing SATellite for Greenhouse gases and Water cycle
※2 The Global Change Observation Mission – Water
※3 The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellites
The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 3 (AMSR3) on GOSAT-GW is the successor of the AMSR2 on GCOM-W (SHIZUKU) and aims to realize the world's top-performing microwave radiometer.
Microwave radiometer can observe physical quantities related to water over the land and sea surfaces, and insides the clouds by its cloud penetrating capability. Since nighttime observations are also possible, it can make observations at any time of day in all-weather conditions.
AMSR3 will expand observation capability of AMSR2 by the additional 166 and 183 GHz frequency bands, improving accuracy of water vapor analysis in numerical weather prediction as well as snowfall retrievals.
The Total Anthropogenic and Natural emissions mapping SpectrOmeter-3 (TANSO-3) on board GOSAT-GW is the successor to TANSO-FTS-2 on IBUKI-2 and improves the estimation accuracy of greenhouse gas emissions by observing a wide range of greenhouse gases on Earth with high precision.
The novel feature of TANSO-3 is a grating imaging spectrometer that replaces the Fourier transform method used by TANSO-FTS and TANSO-FTS-2. So rather than performing point-based observation as had been done previously, TANSO-3 performs surface-based observation. This upgrade means that the sensor can acquire considerably more observation data. TANSO-3 has two observation modes:
|Satellite name||GOSAT-GW||<Reference satellite>|
|GOSAT-2 (IBUKI-2)||GCOM-W (SHIZUKU)|
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 3
Total Anthropogenic and Natural emissions mapping SpectrOmeter-3
Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer-2
Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Cloud and Aerosol Imager-2
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2
|Spacecraft lunch Mass||Approximately 2.6 t||1.8 t||Approximately 2 t|
|Power generation (EOL)||Approximately 5,300 W||5,000 W||3,880 W or more|
|Designed lifetime||7 years or more||5 years||5 years|
|Orbit type||Synchronous sub-recurrent orbit||Synchronous sub-recurrent orbit||Synchronous sub-recurrent orbit|
|Altitude||666 km(Same as GOSAT (IBUKI))||613 km||699.6 km|
|Recurrent period||3 days||6 days||16 days|
|Local Sun Time||
(Same as GCOM-W (SHIZUKU))
|Launch date||JFY 2024 (planned)||October 29, 2018||May 18, 2012|